Abstract titles

 

Abstracts

Feature of establishment of a geodatabase for the planning and the conduct of technical network

Gilles Yvans AKAMBA (1), Gaston NDOCK NDOCK (2), Joachim ETOUNA (3)
1) Université de Yaoundé 1, Msc en géographie physique et en géomatique
2) Unité technique des SIG, Institut National de Cartographie (INC)
3) Chargé de cours, Département de Géographie, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Yaoundé de l’Université de Yaoundé 1

Abstract. Technical networks are territorial bodies that organize human activities by ensuring the interconnection between places. These are equipment for transporting the flow of people, goods and materials from the point of production to the point of consumption. They are economical and determine the development of a territory. Their planning and management requires the implementation of tools that take into account their dual structural and functional dimension, from the creation of the relational spatial database by integrating the MCD (Conceptual Data Model) and the MLD (Model Logic of data to the structuring of data. Geomatics thanks to GIS (geographic information system), efficiently takes into account these specificities through the geodatabase because, provisions for modeling networks. Its design requires rigorous monitoring of IT (Information Technology) standards and the principles of geographic information. The model obtained makes it possible to identify four sets of decisive classes that interact continuously: the network, the physical environment, the human environment and the space-territory.
Keywords : Geomatic, geodatabase, planning, management, technical networks.

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Remote sensing, agricultural dynamics and land use in the locality of Tenjouonoun (West Cameroon)

Claude TATUEBU TAGNE (1), Guy Arnaud SIMO (2)
1) Département de géographie, Université de Yaoundé I, Cameroun
2) Université de Yaoundé I, Cameroun

Abstract. This study aims to characterize the dynamics of agricultural practices and land cover between 1980 and 2015 by means of remote sensing in the Tenjouonoun village. Located on the right bank of the Noun, in the district of Foumbot, this area belongs to one of the most important agricultural sectors of the country. Several pre-classification operations were carried out to improve the quality of the images before the actual classification. Resampling has improved the spatial resolution of these images. Based on the color compositions (bands 3-4-2 for the 1988 and 2001 images and the 7-5-3 bands for the 2015 image), the types of sound occupancy were accurately identified. The creation of a new canal resulting from the linear combination of the red (R) and near-infrared (PIR) channels and the vegetation index made it possible to discriminate the bare soils and the different plant surfaces present. It has attracted many people for the development of agricultural activities during the 1980s; few years later she was gradually abandoned by these farmers. Since the end of the years 2000 a timid return of farmers with agricultural innovations is noted. This dynamism in agricultural practices has been accompanied by considerable changes in land use.
Keywords : Farmer, agricultural dynamics, land use, remote sensing, Tenjouonoun.

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Complementary use of optical and radar satellite imagery for the mapping of tropical ecosystems in the Congo Basin: case of the Bombo Lumene hunting area and reserve and the Mangrove Marine Park (MMP) in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Bruno MUYAYA (1,3), Jean Paul RUDANT (2), Raymond LUMUENAMO (3), Patient MUAMBA (1), Godé KONUNGA (1,3), KALAMBAY LUMPUNGU (1,4) & MUTAMBWE SHANGO (1,5)
1) Centre de Recherche en Géomatique Appliquée à l’Environnement Tropical (CRGET) / Kinshasa – RDC
2) Université de Paris Est de Marne la Vallée, IGN, SRIG/MATIS, France
3) Ecole Régionale Post Universitaire d’Aménagement et de Gestion Intégrés des Forêts et Territoires Tropicaux (ERAIFT), Kinshasa – RDC

Abstract. The main objective of this study is to contribute to a better spatial knowledge of the Bombo Lumene hunting area and reserve as well as the Mangrove Marine Park (MMP), two protected areas of the DRC through the complementary use of multi-source satellite images. . The methodology consisted of using Landsat and Sentinel2 (S2) and Sentinel1 (S1) optical images. We have used photo interpretation and classification techniques through the object – oriented approach and the results are interesting. Indeed, the Landsat images allowed us to detect, on Bombo Lumene, the following classes: forest, wooded savannah, shrub savannah, water, anthropized zone. For the PMM site, we managed to detect classes of forest, savannah, water and anthropized areas. In addition to this, the Landsat images, given their temporal decline (45 years), also made it possible to realize a spatiotemporal dynamics of the study area (15 years for the Bombo Lumene site and 9 years for the PMM site). ). The S2 images, like the S1 images, with their high spatial resolution (10 m), made it possible to detect the inhabited areas as well as the small agricultural parcels (0.1 hectares for S2 and 0.5 hectares for S1), This is important in the context of anthropogenic monitoring, particularly at the Bombo Lumene site, which is invaded by agricultural concessions.
Keywords :Remote sensing, optics, radar, cartography, tropical ecosystems.

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Spatial analysis of the drinkable water infrastructure at the Meiganga Urban Center (Adamaoua – Cameroon)

Alexis HAMDJA NGONIRI (1), Colince FOFE MELI (2), Catherine Laure LISSOUCK (1), CHO COSMOS FON (3)
1) Institut National de Cartographie, Cameroun
2) Ecole de Géologie et d’Exploitation Minière, Cameroun
3) University of Buea, Cameroon

Abstract. This article aims at evaluating and analyzing portable water infrastructures in the urban centre of Meiganga in order to improve the distribution of these infrastructures, and consequently portable water within this urban city. The methodology that was used consists of collecting GPS coordinates of hydraulic infrastructures and gathering of information from the local population and authorities of the city. The data collected was processed in Excel and integrated into a GIS software (ArcGIS) and was then analyzed using the Thiessen Polygon and the Network Analyst. The results showed that Meiganga urban centre was covered by 43 operational boreholes. A cross-analysis of the borehole distribution and the population density revealed that, 635 inhabitants by borehole instead of a maximum of 300 inhabitants as prescribed by OMS/UNICEF standard. The results of this article call for an urgent response to address these difficulties of portable water supply in Meiganga. The management of this problem could involve the re-development or maintenance of existing boreholes and standpipes in poor conditions, the construction of new electric boreholes in five priority neighborhoods (Foulbéré, Rue 24, Bonaberi, Gbaoko and Bamiléké), the improvement of the services of the CDE and the valorization of the Yoyo stream.
Keywords : Meiganga, portable water supply, drilling, spatial analysis, OMS/UNICEF standard.

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Impact of the exploitation System on trees at the border of Waza National Park (Cameroon) and Stratagies for a sustainable management

Remi Evaliste JIAGHO (1), Louis ZAPFACK (2), Louis Paul Roger KABELONG BANOHO (3)
1) Docteur/PhD. Environnementaliste / Biogéographe
2) Université de Yaoundé 1, Faculté des Sciences, Département de Biologie et Physiologie Végétales,  Cameroun
3) Université de Yaoundé 1, Faculté des Sciences, Département de Biologie et Physiologie Végétales

Abstract. The study aims to analyze the impacts of logging of the periphery of the PNW and then propose strategies for better management. The methodological approach is based on semi-structured interviews, field observations, interviews with key actors, and the exploitation of secondary data. It shows that the main activities of the populations are: agriculture, breeding, fishing, logging for various uses. All these activities have negative impacts on the wood resource because of the ill practices used. The practice of roaming, clear cuts on farm land and burning in agriculture reduces over time wooded areas. The same is true of livestock characterized by nomadism and cattle drive, the excessive use of woody fodder and the overloading of livestock density. The exploitation of wood for heating and other uses is one of the most serious threats to woody plants. Given this situation, the study identified the main strategies to improve on the management of the park: the redefinition of the PNW zoning and its periphery, the implementation of a REDD + project and a program of land restoration and restoration of ecodevelopment.
Keywords : Woody Flora, National Park, Waza, Biosphere Reserve, REDD +.

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Spatial analysis of the environmental factors of malaria in Kpomasse municipality in Benin in 2016

Sètondji Michaël BATO (1), Patrick MAKOUTODE (1), Sylvain AOUDOU DOUA (2)
1) Institut Régional de Santé Publique Comlan Afred Quenum, Bénin
2) Université de Maroua, Cameroun

Abstract. In this article, the authors analyze the main environmental factors favoring the occurrence of malaria in the council of Kpomassè in 2016. The methodological approach adopted is both descriptive and comparative with the demographic and cartographic data. In addition, field investigations are made from, searches of files of 100 patients per district, interviews with resource persons (9 health workers and 50 opinion leaders) and direct observations of environments. A GIS database created under QGIS 2.14.3 facilitated the superposition of information layers. From the analysis of the results of this study, it appears that the incidence rate of malaria is very high in the districts of Segbohoue (18%), Dekanme (17.71%) and Tokpa dome (14.41%). This high rate obtained in these districts allowed us to target areas at risk of malaria in the council. The environmental factors at the base are, among others, the elements of the climate, the hydrography, the soils and the very dense vegetation of the environment. Apart from these natural factors, this study also shows the population-related behavioral factors that are related to the environment. These are lack of environmental sanitation and poor waste management that contribute to high incidence of malaria in the community of Kpomasse.
Keywords :GIS, Remote Sensing, Malaria, Environment, Kpomasse.

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Spatiotemporal variation of temperatures and precipitations in Chari-Baguirmi (Chad) from 1951 to 2010

Ngadoum RATNAN (1), Robert MADJIGOTO (2), Agard KOYOUMTAN (3), Laohoté BAOHOUTOU (4)
1) Doctorant à l’Université de N’Gaoundéré, Faculté des Arts, Lettres et Sciences Humaines, Département de Géographie (Cameroun)
2) Doctorant à l’Université de N’Gaoundéré, Faculté des Arts, Lettres et Sciences Humaines, Département de Géographie (Cameroun)
3) Enseignant-Chercheur, Faculté des Sciences Humaines et Sociales, Université de N’Djaména (Tchad), Maître-Assistant CAMES
4) Enseignant-Chercheur, Faculté des Sciences Humaines et Sociales, Université de N’Djaména (Tchad), Maître-Assistant CAMES

Abstract. Chari-Baguirmi, a region located in central-eastern Chad straddling the Sahelian climate and the Sudanese climate, is experiencing curious climatic variations since 1950. The analysis of the precipitation data and the average monthly temperatures of the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of the University of East Anglia shows that the Chari-Baguirmi, like the whole of the Sahel, has a duality between the trend of temperatures that is increasing and that of precipitation which in turn is down from 1951 to 2010.But this regressive trend of precipitations is marked by the precipitations return around the middle of the 1990 after the decades of droughts of 1970 and 1980. Thus, at the end of the series, the region is under a climate with increasing precipitations and temperature trends that are beyond the normal range/level of the series. But with this constant variation of abnormalities, it is difficult to make projections to prepare humans for resilience.
Keywords : Climate change – Sahel – geomatics – spatial analysis – Chari-Baguirmi (Chad).

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The dam of the Mape and the restructuring of the rural habitat of Bankim in Adamawa (Cameroon)

Marie Madeleine MBANMEYH (1)
1) Chargé de cours, Ecole Normale Supérieure de l’Université de Maroua (Cameroun)

Abstract. The rural area of Bankim was transformed due to the creation of the Mapé dam. In order to reduce the effect of that reservoir in the area, some measures were taken by the government to readjust the space. This study aims to analyze the management of that policy in Bankim sub-division. The use of quantitative and qualitative secondary data, the field observation, the interview with public actors and the survey beside the dam’s population resident show that the Mapé dam is a stock reservoir intended to reinforce the capacity of the Sanaga energy production situated downstream. The government created new villages for the displaced population. This brings a new landscape to Bankim sub-division where relocated villages are not well adapted in their new area.
Keywords : Mapé dam, population, transformation, management, Bankim sub-division.

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Solid Waste Management and Economic Issues in Chad: Case study of the City of Doba (Southern Chad)

Gaëlle NODJIGNEMAL GOLTOB (1), Mbaye NGARESSEM GOLTOB (2), Michel TCHOTSOUA (3)
1) Doctorante en géographie, Université de Ngaoundéré (Cameroun)
2) Maître – Assistant en géographie, Université de N’Djaména (Tchad)
3) Professeur titulaire des universités, HDR en géographie/géomatique, Université de Ngaoundéré (Cameroun)

Abstract. Following its rapid urbanization, its status and the development of certain economic activities, Doba, a regional city of Chad, is confronted with the problem of solid waste management. This solid waste, which could be used as raw materials for the development of certain economic activities, is abandoned everywhere in the city, despite the existence of multiple actors. This study analyzes the economic possibilities and the sectors of valorization of solid waste which can contribute to the development of the city of Doba. To do this, the methodology used is based on a hypothetico-deductive approach with qualitative and quantitative approaches, using a method based on documentary research, observations and fieldwork. (sentence structure and vocabulary) The main results show that the city of Doba produces several types of solid waste. Waste management is subjected to two modes: public and individual with the support of several actors employing several strategies. Valuation is on a very small scale and is informal. However, it is the backbone of this informal economic sector.
Keywords : Solid waste, Doba, economic issues, Urban management, Urbanization.

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Property deals and local services: the residential function in the event of the economic and sociopolitical crisis in Cocody-Abidjan

Anne Marilyse KOUADIO (1)
1) Geographer, Associate Professor, Teacher’s training college of Abidjan (Ivory Coast)

Abstract. Since 1980, the reorientation of the State towards other modes of intervention in the land and real estate market favored the privatization of the real-estate development (Kanga, on 2014), and its socio-spatial effects are visible in the range of services in property deals to Cocody. On the basis of inquiries and conversation with the residents of three real-estate developments (Tops of the palm grove, SYNACASSCI 2 and Lauriers 9), the promoters real estate company (REC) LES ROSIERS, GIE-SIBATI and Lauriers, and commercial actors on sites, it appears that although in the regular manner paradoxical, the residential functions and the local services find themselves in property deals to Cocody. It holds the economic and sociopolitical crises which shook Ivory Coast and imposed in property deals, other realities. In front of the difficulties respecting the contractual financial commitments towards the acquired housing, the idea came to the buyers to transform houses for lucrative reasons, thus questioning the residential function of property deals. The proliferation of the local services which follows certainly permits the solving of some pressing problems but at the same time, creates numerous nuisances.
Keywords : Property deals – economic and sociopolitical crises – local service – Cocody.