INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS

In  order  to  facilitate  editing,  authors  are  requested  to  follow the following recommendations :
1-  Volume  of  the  contribution:  giving  that,  a  page  of  our Review  should  contain  about  500  works  and  apart  from exceptional derogation granted by the editorship for scientific reasons,  no  article,  with  everything  included,  should  be longer than  15  pages,  also,  no  note,  or  no  review  should exceed  7  pages,  knowing  that  one  page  of  the  Journal contains about 500 words.
2- The manuscript: it must be submitted in electronic version. The  first  page  will  indicate:  the  title  of  the  article  (which should  be  concise,  complete  and  precise),  the  name  of  the author shall be followed by his academic rank, the name and the  address  of  the  institution  where  the  research  had  been carried  out,  the  Abstract,  Key  Words,  Résumé,  Mots  clés (within 5 and 7). The text must be typed on the A4 format with double  spacing  on  one  side  of  the  paper  only.  Each  page shall  be  numbered,  and  the  subdivisions  of  the  text  well structured.
3- Authors  are  strongly  advised  to  send  their  texts  trough Internet in word on P.C or Macintosh at rigager@gmail.com
4- The  abstract:  every  text  must  be  accompanied  with  an abstract of not more than 200 words, and translated into the other language of the Journal. The abstract should enable the reader  to  understand  the  main  focus  of  the  article and  to know  the  methods  used,  the  results  reached,  and  the problems raised. It must be written with the maximum of care and lucidity.
5- Bibliographic  references:  reduced  to  the  ones  absolutely necessary to a good understanding of the text, they must be quoted  in  the  text  in  the  following  manner:  (Atango,  1975). Where there are more than three authors, only the first one shall be cited followed by & al. At the end of the article, the references  constituting  the  bibliography  must  be  quoted  in their chronological order for the same author.
References
At  the  end  of  the  article,  the  references  constituting  the bibliography  must  be  quoted  in  alphabetical  order  and  date for the same author.
Printed book
Name,  Surname  or  Initials.  Year,  Title  in  italics.  Place  of publication : Publisher, number of pages.
Electronic Book
Name, Surname or Initials. Year. Title in italics. [Online or CD-Rom  or  magnetic  band  or  USB flash disk],  place  of  publication, Publisher, Date the publication was found, [Reference of DD, Month,  AAAA  (Actual date  the  document  was   consulted)]. Necessary way to find or identify the location of the document (ex. URL).
Chapter in a Printed Book
Name, Surname or initial, Year of publication Chapter title. In: name, surname or initial (ed.), title of the book in italics. Place of publication, Publisher, Number of pages, p.
Printed Report
Name, Surname or Initials. Year of publication. Title in italics.
Place of publication.
University Work
Name,  Surname  or  Initials.  Year  of  defense, Title  of  the dissertation  or  thesis  in  Italics.  Nature  of  the  thesis  or dissertation, University of defense, Number of pages, p.
Article in a Printed Review
Name,  Surname  or  Initials.  Year,  Title  of  the  article. Title  of the Review in Italics, Volume and/or Number, Page
Article in an electronic review
Name, Surname or Initials. Year. Title of the review in italics, [Reference  of  DD,  Month,  AAAA  (Actual  date  the  document was consulted)]. Necessary way to find or identify the location of the document (ex. URL)]
Presentation at a convention, colloquium, congress
Name,  Surname  or  Initials.  Year,  Title  of  presentation,  In: Name, Surname or Initials. (ed) Year, Title of convention (in italics), Place of the convention (in Italics), Date of convention (In italics), Place of publication. Publisher, Number of pages, p.
Web Sites consulted
Site name [Reference of DD, Month, AAAA (Actual date the document  was  consulted)].  Necessary  way  to  found  or identify the location of the document (URL of the site)]. Ex. Le magazine des semences du monde végétal, qu’est-ce que la  biodiversité ?  in  Biodiversité, http://www.semences.mag.fr/ les-semences-au-coeur-de-la-vie, 18-02-2009, consulté le 26-10-2009, www.crdi.ca/un fucus.
6- The Footnotes: they must be put at the end of the end of each page  in  exactly  the  same order as  they  appear in  the article.
7- Maps  and  graphs:  they  must  be  produced  to  their  final scales  with  the  dimensions  adapted  to  the  format of  the Journal.
8-  The  photographs:  black  and  white,  well  contrasted photographs must be produced. For photographs, which are not  taken  by  the  author  himself/herself,  the  latter  should endeavor to copyright their sources.
9 – Tables  and  figures:  they  should  be  numbered  in  Arabic numerals, but the first have their titles above them, whereas the latter have theirs below. Submitted  articles  are  not  accepted  immediately.  This  can only  be  reflected  in  your  publications  only after  acceptance by  the  Scientific  Committee.  In  addition,  articles  cannot  be submitted  to  several  journals  at  the  same  time  or  have already been published.
The evaluation
The  articles  are  submitted  to  the  opinion  of  a  reading committee,  as  for  the  printed  magazines,  according  to  the following stages:
– At  least  two  readers  are  chosen  from  the  members  of  the editorial board to give their opinion.
– A  summary  of  this  information  (acceptance  or  rejection, requests  for  modifications  or  additions)  is  communicated  to the  author,  who  then  returns  a revised  version  according  to the  recommendations.  Please  follow  the  online  « author submission guide » instructions on the platform.
Accepted articles are posted online for a free access on the Journal site. The costs associated with the evaluation and putting on line of an article are 20 000 CFAF (30,5 €). A digital release costs 3500 CFAF (5 €), a digital volume costs 13500 CFAF (20 €), a paper volume costs 32500 (50 €).
The  electronic  article  has  unprecedented  potentialities  by allowing instant access to a network of resources, references and  debates.  We  strongly  encourage  authors  to  insert hypertext  links  to  their  sources  (cited  articles,  simulations, databases, etc.) in order to increase interactivity. For our part, we  undertake  to  publish  the  reasoned  reactions  that  your article will have aroused.
Copyright
IJGPRM  is  an  on-line  magazine  with  paper  version,  the author retains all his copyright while giving permission to the magazine to publish his article.
The text
The text: please apply the « Normal » style without tabulation. Do not use tabs, spaces or page breaks, they will disappear when put online. For titles, please apply Style: Title 1, Title 2, Title 3 according to levels in Microsoft Word. Links should refer to sites that are accessible on the web and not to local files.
The  tables  will  be  made  under  word  by  the  menu  « table  + insert ». Excel charts will be converted to images. Quotations are in quotation marks and in italics. References to citations are made directly in the text and not by footnote.
A quotation ends with a parenthesis indicating the author, the year. Ex. (Tchotsoua, 2001, Havard, 2001). If the name of the author is quoted in the sentence, indicate the date.
The notes are at the bottom of the page with a call of notes in the text. Spelling and syntax. The  journal  expects  authors  to  have  their  article  written according  to  the  common  rules  of  spelling  and  syntax. Careful proofreading is therefore  required on the part of the authors  before  submission.  An  article  that  does  not  respect the  basic  rules  of  writing  may  be  rejected  for  this  simple reason.
Additional images and files
In  the  article,  the presentation  of  the  images  is  done  in  the following way :
Illustration
• Title of illustration
• Source of illustration (optional)
• Legend of illustration (optional)
For maps, always indicate the scale.
The  illustrations  must  be  inserted  in  your  text,  but  also provided  in  separate  files  (extra  files)  when  you  deposit  on our platform. When submitting the additional file, please enter the following information in the title:  NameAuthor_TypeFigureNumFigure. Example:  Talla_carte1.jpg or Talla_table  1.doc  or dupont_figure1.png.
To avoid mistakes:
You  must  insert  each  image  in  its  place  in  the  article  or failing that, indicate the name of the file provided separately to  avoid  any  confusion  in  the  placement  and  order  of  the figures.
You will also specify the exact location of the tables with the file name, which you have put in additional files so that there is no confusion. Also, do not forget to check that the references cited in  the body  of  the  text  correspond  to  the  numbering  of  the illustrations before depositing your article.
The format of the images
Authors should check that the illustrations have a resolution sufficient to be legible at least 200 to 300 dpi. An  image  inserted  into  a  Word  document  provided  in  the body of the article should be at least 1,000 pixels wide. For a file  in  the  appendix,  its  width  should  be between  2,500  and 3,500 pixels.

It  is  also  important  to  ensure  that  the  quality  of  the  image suffers  the  least  possible  degradation  during  its  processing, and  to  ensure  that  a  reworked  version  is  as  faithful  as possible  to  the  original  (It  is  necessary  to  ensure,  in particular, that at  the time of the reduction of an image, the proportions  height  / width  are  well  preserved).  You  will  find below in the section « To obtain an optimal quality » a help to the realization of your images.
Some key recommendations
In  Photoshop,  it  is  not  recommended  to  choose  the  option « Save for the  Web », in order  to limit certain  degradations  of the image (the reduction of the resolution in particular); It is therefore preferable to use the option « save as » to keep the best possible quality of an image at the time of recording.
Saving an image for publication on the Web can be done in GIF,  JPEG  or  PNG  format,  but  should  only  be  in  JPEG  or PNG format. For electronic publishing, color images in JPEG and  PNG  format  must  be  in  RGB  mode  and  not  in  CMYK mode (used for printing). When to use these image formats.
The  GIF  compression format  is  used  for  images  containing flat areas of colour, and few gradients (illustrations, drawings …);  This  format  is  to  be  avoided  as  much  as  possible, especially  for  photographs,  because  it  only  supports  256  colours and greatly degrades the quality of the images; If  you  are  using  image  processing  software,  see  the documentation  for how to  save  the  image in  JPEG  or PNG format in the best possible quality.
It  is  not  recommended  to  use  the  PNG  format  for  images containing areas of transparency because these areas will be misinterpreted  by  some  browsers  and  will  lose  their transparency.
For optimum quality
Image  formats  for  Web  (JPEG  and  GIF)  degrade  image quality, such as removing or replacing pixels. The purpose of this type of format is to produce an image of less weight than the  original,  playing  on  alterations  normally  invisible  (or almost invisible) by the eye.
The recording in one of these formats must take place at the end of the processing of the image. That is when the image is  ready to be published definitively.  For the  quality of the image deteriorates a little more each time irreversibly and that can produce images that are totally illegible or unusable at the  time  of  their  publication.  It  is  therefore  strongly recommended to save an image in these formats only when all the desired changes have been made to the image.
Until its last modification, the image should be saved only in lossless formats (PSD, PNG, TIFF) and at the end in JPEG or GIF format. The PNG format is most  recommended.
Titles of illustrations
The titles of the tables are placed above and numbered with Arabic numerals. For the other illustration’s (figures, photos, boxes), the titles are placed after. The titles do not appear in the  illustration  but  in  the  text  and  respect  the  following presentation: Figure  1.  Evolution  of  land-use  patterns  on  the  Adamaoua plateau between 2000 and 2016.
Sources of illustrations
The  source  of  the  illustration  must  be  clearly  indicated.  The source of the data used to produce the illustration (e.g., Earth Explorer, 2001) and the source of the illustration itself should be  specified  if  the  author  uses  an  illustration  already published in a book.