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Abstracts titles






Pedagogy and digital innovation in Higher Education

Amaury DAELE (1)


1) Professeur HEP Associé, Haute Ecole Pédagogique Vaud, Lausanne, Suisse


Abstract. The starting point for this conference is several issues and questions for reflection that are often heard in higher education when discussing pedagogical uses of technology. While everyone agrees that pedagogical innovation should be constantly developed (Tricot, 2017), especially in higher education, a central question remains "how?" : how to develop (innovative) pedagogical uses of digital in higher education, how to involve both students and teachers, how to organize the development of innovation at the institutional level, or even several institutions when they collaborate with each other? The subsidiary, or rather preliminary, question to this list is why it is important, or even necessary, to innovate in university pedagogical practices (Lameul et al., 2016; Lison et al., 2014).




UCAD in REAMOOC: the results of a commitment to pooling good practices and improving the quality of learning

Baba Dièye DIAGNE (1) et Mbaye SENE (2)


(1) Université Cheikh Anta Diop, ENSETP, Dakar, Sénégal
(2) Université Cheikh Anta Diop, FASETP, Dakar, Sénégal


Abstract. This communication is part of the REAMOOC project and focuses on the design and development of the MOOC "University Pedagogy" for higher education lecturers in sub-Saharan Africa. Our theoretical framework articulates ergonomics and quality analysis tools. Initially, our analytical framework is the construction of personas that constitute a methodological tool that supports the development of a representation of the user's thoughts and actions. And in a second step, we rely on the "SWOT" and "5W2H" tools for analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of a project and situation diagnosis. For this dual analysis, we developed a methodology to characterize the personas and collect the results of qualitative analyses to produce reference points necessary for the design of the MOOC. Keywords : MOOC, university pedagogy, teaching, learning.




Techno-pedagogy for distance education in Africa. The case of the University of Ngaoundéré in Cameroon


Michel TCHOTSOUA (1), Rodrigue SAOUNGOUMI SOURPELE (1), Collins KUETE (1) et Mohamadou BELLO (2)


(1) Université de Ngaoundéré – Cameroun
(2) MINESEC – DRES/AD – Cameroun


Abstract. The University of Ngaoundéré is one of the eight state universities in Cameroon. It comprises 12 institutions spread over four campuses located in three regions, for a total of approximately 30,000 students. Despite the efforts made by the administration, this university continues to face a problem of infrastructural and educational resources such as the limited number of classrooms and the high student-to-teacher ratio. This situation worsened with the outbreak of COVID-19 which imposed new constraints on the delivery of courses, including compliance with barrier measures which limited the number of students per hall. This has prompted schools to segment classes into clusters, thus increasing the hourly load of the insufficient number of teachers. Following the recommendations of the Ministry of Higher Education to migrate to e-learning systems, the University of Ngaoundéré has developed several platforms. While the platforms are well received by some classes with small numbers, other classes, particularly those with large numbers, still have doubts about their effectiveness. This work aims to depict the current situation of e-learning at the University of Ngaoundéré and to investigate the degree of preparation of the University of Ngaoundéré to adopt MOOC as a palliative for the lack of resources to finally judge the adoption of MOOC. To do this, in addition to field observations, online forms have been designed to collect the opinions of students and teachers. Platform analyzes were carried out. Finally, the network infrastructure inspection was carried out to determine the feasibility of deploying and using MOOC within the university. The study shows that the adoption rate of e-learning platforms remains low. MOOC are an acceptable alternative, but the training of teachers and students is imperative, in addition to improving network and electrical infrastructure. Keywords : E-learning, MOOC, COVID-19, Techno-pedagogy, Lack of infrastructural and educational resources.




Digital education at the service of higher education in sub-Saharan Africa: the case study of GAGER Master of the University of Ngaoundéré in Cameroon and the contribution of the REAMOOC project


Michel TCHOTSOUA (1), Jean Louis FENDJI (1), Narcisse TALLA TANKAM (2), Robert Christian ANABA BANIMB (1), Mohamadou BELLO (3)


(1) Université de Ngaoundéré, Cameroun
(2) Université de Dschang, Cameroun
(3) MINESEC – DRES/AD, Cameroun


Abstract. In a context of natural enclosure with very limited qualified human resources, it is possible to offer quality international training using digital channels and technologies. This lesson learned or experience-sharing article aims to disseminate the experience gained on the establishment and operation of the first online master's degree in the northern part of Cameroon: the Master of Geomatics, Land and Resources Management (GLRM), offered by the University of Ngaoundere. This master's degree, created in 2010, is now supported by the Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie (AUF) and the REAMOOC project as far as experiences are concerned. Keywords : Plateforme de téléenseignement, Afrique, Moodle, Géomatique, Formations ouvertes à distance.




MOOC productions in a multilingual context : the case of the University of Ngaoundéré in Cameroon


Candice GUEMDJOM KENGNE (1), Stéphane Céleste SOKENG (2), Bertrand AMADOU (1)


(1) Docteure en Linguistique Française, Département de Français, FALSH, Université de Ngaoundéré, Cameroun
(2) Docteure en Études bilingues, Département de Lettres bilingues, Université de Yaoundé I, Cameroun
(3) Doctorant en Informatique, Département d’Informatique, Université de Ngaoundéré, Cameroun


Abstract. By reporting the production of MOOC in a multilingual context that the REAMOOC project made possible to achieve, this article would like to highlight the importance of production conditions in the development of target’s profiles, a crucial step in the design of MOOC which determines their degree of reception. In fact, the REAMOOC project (African Network for the Development of MOOC for Educational Innovation in Higher Education) which aimed not only training but also popularizing the tools of educational innovation, gave the opportunity to experiment the production of MOOC in partner African universities, including the University of Ngaoundéré. Like almost all African countries, Cameroon in general and the city of Ngaoundéré in particular has a complex and heterogeneous socio-linguistic configuration which does not facilitate the homogenization of the target audience. The experience of the production of the national MOOC “Education for citizenship, health, ethics and deontology” (EDUCYS) in a plurilingual context where official languages, mother tongues and even vehicular languages coexist, allowed to identify a certain number of problems, in particular the difficulty of delimiting the target. With the qualitative approach, the data collected lead to the categorization of profiles. It turns out that even if the young population has relatively the same needs, the reception capacity of the MOOC is not acquired for all. In other words, there is no match between training needs and training capacity. This is why we have opposed two profiles: the actual profile in the field and the typical profile imposed by the MOOC. It emerges that by considering only the second, the MOOC designer, comparable to a popularizer runs the risk of seeing his target be minimized if the translation capacity is not introduced for the happiness of the speakers expressing themselves in other languages than that of the MOOC. Keywords : MOOC, teaching, plurilingual context, public / target, profile.




The Senegalese National MOOC in Entrepreneurship and Business Creation as an incitative to the self-employment of young higher education graduates


Amadou Maury TALL (1)


(1) Équipe de Recherche en Innovation Managériale (ERIM) de l’UADB, Sénégal


Abstract. The unemployment rate of higher education graduates is currently at 32.4% according to (ANSD 2015 report) in Senegal. This is due to the fact that students, for lack of entrepreneurial culture, do not know how to how to take advantage of the use of the internet tool. It should be added that entrepreneurship was not also considered in public policies in Senegal. Even if currently, it is clear that entrepreneurship and business creation constitute one of the mechanisms for combating poverty, creating wealth, and strengthening the position of project leaders. Many young Senegalese do not know all the potential that exists in their region, whether in terms of support, vocational training and financing of their business project. However, this information is decisive for increasing their possibilities for professional integration and for them to stay as long as possible in their area to invest in it. So far, the measures implemented in terms of professional integration for students have not mobilized ICT in teaching practices. However, the massification of student numbers in the face of an insufficient number of teachers within universities; the issues attached to the prerogative of professional integration; the health crisis with COVID-19 that we are currently experiencing, show the relevance of developing strategies promoting online education focused on entrepreneurship. There is therefore the need to ask: how does the MOOC “Entrepreneurship and Business Creation” allow the Universities of Senegal to encourage business creation and self-employment in order to overcome the problems? linked to professional integration and employability? Keywords : MOOC, Entrepreneurship, Business creation, self-employment.




Introduction and development of digital education in a context of strong digital divide: feedback from the University of Yaoundé I with CertNum'Sup (ENS) and the first MOOC (ENSP)


Bernabé BATCHAKUI (1), Frida LONGO (2) et Anne Marie CHANA (1), Paul Salomon NGOHE-EKAM (1)


(1) ENSP – Université de Yaoundé 1, Cameroun
(2) ENS – Université de Yaoundé 1, Cameroun


Abstract. With digital technology, at the end of 2011, we saw the birth of a new era in training with the advent of the “Massive Open Online Courses” MOOC. These offer the possibility for a teacher to train thousands of learners at any time, beyond the usual platforms like Moodle, Dokeos, Claroline, etc. MOOC offers training content in video format in general, and of high quality on the theoretical and practical level (possibility of experimentation and simulation). Digital technology presents itself as an alternative to the problems facing most of our universities in the South (Insufficient human and material resources, massification). This article is the feedback from two institutions of the University of Yaoundé 1 : the Higher Teachers’ Training College (École Normale Supérieure) has placed the emphasis on training higher education teachers in digital pedagogy. The Higher Polytechnique School has integrated MOOC into the teaching of Engineering Sciences. These two fields of experimentation gave rise to the training for 6 years (2013-2021) of nearly 150 teachers in digital pedagogy and for almost 4 years to the initiation of nearly 120 teachers to MOOC, implementation of tools (Intranet MOOC and Cache MOOC) to facilitate accessibility to Intranet MOOC, mobility of EPFL and ENSP Yaoundé teachers for teaching, training of ENSP teachers in Yaoundé in the production of MOOC and the training of thousands of students who benefit until today from the accessibility to the courses and experiences of the Laboratories of the large universities of the North, via platforms such as Coursera, Fun, Edx. Teachers thus have the possibility, with digital technology and MOOC, to complete their training, to strengthen their capacities in technopedagogy and to gain visibility on a global scale. Learners have enormous opportunities for learning, applying the training they receive and getting jobs. Institutions have strong possibilities ofstrengthening their collaborations and providing solutions to massification. Keywords : MOOC, Massification, digital pedagogy, training, experience feedback, CertNum’SUP.




The realization of the MOOC "Agricultural Entrepreneurship in Tropical Environment» : Processes, Constraints and Perspectives


Collins KUÉTÉ (1), Nicolas NJINTANG YANOU (1), Narcisse TALLA TANKAM (2), Mohamadou BELLO (1), Michel TCHOTSOUA (1)


(1) Université de Ngaoundéré, Cameroun
(2) Université de Dschang, Cameroun


Abstract. Digital economy is now in a cruising phase as it is the main driving force behind innovations in all sectors of economic and social life. The education sector in general and higher education is not left out. Indeed, the universality of knowledge makes the use of ICTs for the dissemination of researches’ results a primary channel, with the aim of reaching all targets wherever they are. While the schooling rate in Africa is becoming more and more important, the existing physical infrastructures are becoming very insufficient to absorb the massification of students in universities. To solve such problems in sub-Saharan universities, the digital path remains not a choice, but a necessity to help governments in the continuity of the training of young people. The urgency of techno-pedagogy use is accentuated by the appearance of the COVID-19 pandemic, which is also slow to disappear. It is with this in mind that the European Union, along with a few pilot partners in sub-Saharan Africa, initiated the REAMOOC project to promote the penetration of MOOC in Sub-Saharan Africa universities. To this end, the University of Ngaoundéré, one of the pilot partners in this project, has embarked on the production of a MOOC on the theme of Agricultural Entrepreneurship in the Tropics (AET). The production of such a MOOC was not without real constraints, whether on the methodological, technical or human level. However, the success of such a project requires the support of universities in the training of trainers and the State in providing the necessary logistical infrastructure for the production ofMOOC. Keywords : Sub-Saharan University, Techno-pedagogy; Covid19; REAMOOC; MOOC, EAT; University of Ngaoundéré.




Professions in University techno-pedagogy


Apollinaire BATOURE BAMANA (1), Bernabé BATCHAKUI (2), Elhadji Mamadou NGUER (3)


(1) Institut Universitaire de Technologie de Ngaoundéré, Cameroun
(2) École Nationale Supérieure Polytechnique de Yaoundé, Cameroun
(3) Université Virtuelle du Sénégal, Sénégal


Abstract. Techno-pedagogy is the application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to educational engineering processes. ICT brings substantial added value to the work of the pedagogical engineer. To be properly implemented, techno-pedagogy requires a variety of skills to be combined. The present paper highlights the various pedagogical engineering professions, based on the implementation process of a MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) observed in the framework of the REAMOOC (Réseau Africain de Développement de MOOC) project. The interest is to show that the realization of a MOOC requires the combination of various skills, and to draw the attention of public policies in the field of education, to the urgent need to deploy means for the training of profiles necessary to the field of techno-pedagogy. Keywords : University techno-pedagogy, Information and Communication Technologies, Pedagogical engineering, REAMOOC project.




The challenges of higher education institutions : the puzzle for ECOWAS countries


Babacar BITÈYE (1) , Ousseynou THIAM (2), Moustapha SOKHNA (3)


(1) Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar − Sénégal
(2) Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar− Sénégal
(3) Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar− Sénégal


Abstract. The article identifies and questions the major challenges to be met in higher education in Sub-Sahara Africa and particularly in ECOWAS countries. At the same time, it proposes to highlight the avenues of solutions in order to meet the challenges in order to move towards quality education everywhere and for all. What meaning should be given to the concept of challenge? Understanding it as a distance between the objectives set and the means available to achieve it, in the context of higher education, explains the complexity and difficulty of grasping it. The concept of higher education needs to be clarified by basing theoretical reflection on the nature of the institution. A consequent review of the existing literature around the issue reveals that the challenges facing universities in West Africa have been almost the same for several years. The examination of official texts and the documentary analysis thus lead to a reflection on a good number of challenges to be met. These are massification and quality, employment and employability, research and innovation, and finally technology prospecting and cultural entrenchment. Keywords : Challenges, ECOWAS, higher education, innovation, technology.




Simple and efficient management of distance training in Moodle


El hadji Mamadou NGUER




Abstract. Managing schedules and course notifications at remote universities with large student populations has always been a real issue, both in design and in automating course reminders. This is the case of the Virtual University of Senegal which has nearly 30,000 students spread over 10 Masters and 12 licenses, more than 1,000 speakers (teachers and tutors), more than 60 course schedules created and updated. manually updated on a daily basis, then integrated into Moodle training platforms for downloading, and no automatic tool for managing schedules and notifying teachers, tutors and students when lessons are approaching. This is also the case for canceling or modifying a course. In this article, we offer a solution to these problems. It consists of using the Google Suite tools to facilitate the management of training jobs and to automate reminders (notifications) when lessons are approaching. In the following, we will present the context, the problems and the steps to follow for the implementation of the solution. Keywords : Schedule, notification, G-suite.




Digital Education : a solution for improving the quality of Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa


Michel TCHOTSOUA (1)


(1) Professeur, Université de Ngaoundéré, Cameroun


Abstract. In order to manage resources, especially human resources, it is first necessary to train them well. This is the reason for devoting an issue of RIGAGER to distance education in general and to pedagogical innovations in higher education in particular. Among the many challenges that Sub-Saharan Africa currently faces for its development, education and training are paramount. The importance of these challenges is all the more important given that sub-Saharan African countries have undertaken reforms aimed at professionalizing university curricula. However, faced with the massive and rapid increase in their population in general and in the population to be trained in particular, the face-to-face education system is increasingly showing its limits. Indeed, the growing student population, the inadequacy or lack of infrastructure, the limited number of qualified human resources, the concentration of these resources in the main urban areas, the isolation of many regions as well as security issues (limiting access to training sites), require the adoption of new training approaches in order to meet the demand.