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Instructions to authors

In order to facilitate editing, authors are requested to follow the following recommendations :

1- Volume of the contribution: giving that, a page of our Review should contain about 500 works and apart from exceptional derogation granted by the editorship for scientific reasons, no article, with everything included, should be longer than 15 pages, also, no note, or no review should exceed 7 pages, knowing that one page of the Journal contains about 500 words.

2- The manuscript: it must be submitted in electronic version. The first page will indicate: the title of the article (which should be concise, complete and precise), the name of the author shall be followed by his academic rank, the name and the address of the institution where the research had been carried out, the Abstract, Key Words, Résumé, Mots clés (within 5 and 7). The text must be typed on the A4 format with double spacing on one side of the paper only. Each page shall be numbered, and the subdivisions of the text well structured.

3- Authors are strongly advised to send their texts trough Internet in word on P.C or Macintosh at rigager@gmail.com

4- The abstract : every text must be accompanied with an abstract of not more than 200 words, and translated into the other language of the Journal. The abstract should enable the reader to understand the main focus of the article and to know the methods used, the results reached, and the problems raised. It must be written with the maximum of care and lucidity.

5- Bibliographic references: reduced to the ones absolutely necessary to a good understanding of the text, they must be quoted in the text in the following manner: (Atango, 1975). Where there are more than three authors, only the first one shall be cited followed by & al. At the end of the article, the references constituting the bibliography must be quoted in their chronological order for the same author.

References
At the end of the article, the references constituting the bibliography must be quoted in alphabetical order and date for the same author.

Printed books
Name, Surname or Initials. Year, Title in italics. Place of publication : Publisher, number of pages.
 

Electronic books
Name, Surname or Initials. Year. Title in italics. [Online or CD-Rom or magnetic band or USB flash disk], place of publication, Publisher, Date the publication was found, [Reference of DD, Month, AAAA (Actual date the document was consulted)]. Necessary way to find or identify the location of the document (ex. URL).
Titre en italique. [en ligne ou cédérom ou bande magnétique ou Flash disk USB],  Lieu  d’édition  :  Editeur,  [référence  du  JJ  mois  AAAA (date  à  laquelle  le  document  a  été  consulté)].  Renseignements nécessaires  pour  localiser  ou  identifier  le  document  cité  (ex. URL).

Chapter in a printed book
Name, Surname or initial, Year of publication Chapter title. In: name, surname or initial (ed.), title of the book in italics. Place of publication, Publisher, Number of pages, p.
 

Printed reports
Name, Surname or Initials. Year of publication. Title in italics. Place of publication.
 

University work
Name, Surname or Initials. Year of defense, Title of the dissertation or thesis in Italics. Nature of the thesis or dissertation, University of defense, Number of pages, p.

Article in a printed review
Name, Surname or Initials. Year, Title of the article.
Title of the Review in Italics, Volume and/or Number, Page

Article in an electronic review
Name, Surname or Initials. Year, Title of the article.
Title of the review in italics, [Reference of DD, Month, AAAA (Actual date the document was consulted)]. Necessary way to find or identify the location of the document (ex. URL)]

Presentation at a convention, colloquium, congress
Name, Surname or Initials. Year, Title of presentation, In: Name, Surname or Initials. (ed) Year, Title of convention (in italics), Place of the convention (in Italics), Date of convention (In italics), Place of publication. Publisher, Number of pages, p.

Websites consulted
Site name [Reference of DD, Month, AAAA (Actual date the document was consulted)]. Necessary way to found or identify the location of the document (URL of the site)]. Ex. Le magazine des semences du monde végétal, qu’est-ce que la biodiversité ? in Biodiversité, http://www.semences.mag.fr/ les-semences-au-coeur-de-la-vie, 18-02-2009, consulté le 26-10-2009, www.crdi.ca/un fucus.
 

6- The Footnotes: they must be put at the end of the end of each page in exactly the same order as they appear in the article.

7- Maps and graphs: they must be produced to their final scales with the dimensions adapted to the format of the Journal.

8- The photographs: black and white, well contrasted photographs must be produced. For photographs, which are not taken by the author himself/herself, the latter should endeavor to copyright their sources.

9- Tables and figures: they should be numbered in Arabic numerals, but the first have their titles above them, whereas the latter have theirs below.

Submitted articles are not accepted immediately. This can only be reflected in your publications only after acceptance by the Scientific Committee. In addition, articles cannot be submitted to several journals at the same time or have already been published.

The evaluation
The articles are submitted to the opinion of a reading committee, as for the printed magazines, according to the following stages :
The articles are submitted to the opinion of a reading committee, as for the printed magazines, according to the following stages: – At least two readers are chosen from the members of the editorial board to give their opinion. – A summary of this information (acceptance or rejection, requests for modifications or additions) is communicated to the author, who then returns a revised version according to the recommendations. Please follow the online « author submission guide » instructions on the platform. Accepted articles are posted online for a free access on the Journal site. The costs associated with the evaluation and putting on line of an article are 20 000 CFAF (30,5 €). A digital release costs 3500 CFAF (5 €), a digital volume costs 13500 CFAF (20 €), a paper volume costs 32500 (50 €).
The electronic article has unprecedented potentialities by allowing instant access to a network of resources, references and debates. We strongly encourage authors to insert hypertext links to their sources (cited articles, simulations, databases, etc.) in order to increase interactivity. For our part, we undertake to publish the reasoned reactions that your article will have aroused.

Copyright
IJGPRM is an on-line magazine with paper version, the author retains all his copyright while giving permission to the magazine to publish his article.

The text

The text: please apply the « Normal » style without tabulation. Do not use tabs, spaces or page breaks, they will disappear when put online. For titles, please apply Style: Title 1, Title 2, Title 3 according to levels in Microsoft Word.
- Links should refer to sites that are accessible on the web and not to local files.
- The tables will be made under word by the menu « table + insert ».
- Excel charts will be converted to images.
Excel charts will be converted to images. Quotations are in quotation marks and in italics. References to citations are made directly in the text and not by footnote. A quotation ends with a parenthesis indicating the author, the year. Ex. (Tchotsoua, 2001, Havard, 2001). If the name of the author is quoted in the sentence, indicate the date.
The notes are at the bottom of the page with a call of notes in the text.
Spelling and syntax.
The journal expects authors to have their article written according to the common rules of spelling and syntax. Careful proofreading is therefore required on the part of the authors before submission. An article that does not respect the basic rules of writing may be rejected for this simple reason.
In the article, the presentation of the images is done in the following way :

Illustration
- Title of the illustration
- Source of the illustration
- Legend of the illustration
For maps, always indicate the scale. The illustrations must be inserted in your text, but also provided in separate files (extra files) when you deposit on our platform. When submitting the additional file, please enter the following information in the title: NameAuthor_TypeFigureNumFigure.
NomAuteur_TypeFigureNumFigure
Example : Talla_carte1.jpg or Talla_tableau1.doc or dupont_figure1.png
To avoid mistakes : You must insert each image in its place in the article or failing that, indicate the name of the file provided separately to avoid any confusion in the placement and order of the figures. You will also specify the exact location of the tables with the file name, which you have put in additional files so that there is no confusion.
Also, do not forget to check that the references cited in the body of the text correspond to the numbering of the illustrations before depositing your article.

The format of the images
Authors should check that the illustrations have a resolution sufficient to be legible at least 200 to 300 dpi.
An image inserted into a Word document provided in the body of the article should be at least 1,000 pixels wide.
For a file in the appendix, its width should be between 2,500 and 3,500 pixels.
It is also important to ensure that the quality of the image suffers the least possible degradation during its processing, and to ensure that a reworked version is as faithful as possible to the original (It is necessary to ensure, in particular, that at the time of the reduction of an image, the proportions height / width are well preserved). You will find below in the section « To obtain an optimal quality » a help to the realization of your images.

Some key recommendations
In Photoshop, it is not recommended to choose the option « Save for the Web », in order to limit certain degradations of the image (the reduction of the resolution in particular); It is therefore preferable to use the option « save as » to keep the best possible quality of an image at the time of recording.
Saving an image for publication on the Web can be done in GIF, JPEG or PNG format, but should only be in JPEG or PNG format. For electronic publishing, color images in JPEG and PNG format must be in RGB mode and not in CMYK mode (used for printing). When to use these image formats.
The GIF compression format is used for images containing flat areas of colour, and few gradients (illustrations, drawings …); This format is to be avoided as much as possible, especially for photographs, because it only supports 256 colours and greatly degrades the quality of the images;
If you are using image processing software, see the documentation for how to save the image in JPEG or PNG format in the best possible quality.
It is not recommended to use the PNG format for images containing areas of transparency because these areas will be misinterpreted by some browsers and will lose their transparency.

Pour obtenir une qualité optimale
Image formats for Web (JPEG and GIF) degrade image quality, such as removing or replacing pixels. The purpose of this type of format is to produce an image of less weight than the original, playing on alterations normally invisible (or almost invisible) by the eye.
The recording in one of these formats must take place at the end of the processing of the image. That is when the image is ready to be published definitively. For the quality of the image deteriorates a little more each time irreversibly and that can produce images that are totally illegible or unusable at the time of their publication. It is therefore strongly recommended to save an image in these formats only when all the desired changes have been made to the image.
Until its last modification, the image should be saved only in lossless formats (PSD, PNG, TIFF) and at the end in JPEG or GIF format. The PNG format is most recommended.

Titles of illustrations
The titles of the tables are placed above and numbered with Arabic numerals. For the other illustration’s (figures, photos, boxes), the titles are placed after. The titles do not appear in the illustration but in the text and respect the following presentation :
Figure 1. Evolution of land-use patterns on the Adamaoua plateau between 2000 and 2016.

Sources of illustrations
The source of the illustration must be clearly indicated. The source of the data used to produce the illustration (e.g., Earth Explorer, 2001) and the source of the illustration itself should be specified if the author uses an illustration already published in a book.

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