- Urban pressure, agriculture, cattle rearing and spatial dynamics of marginal forest formations: case of the upper Bini watershed (Adamaoua region in Cameroon)
- Analysis of the modes of access and control of the natural resources of the Chadian part of Lake Chad by the rural communities
- Extraction and marketing of gold of the Mayo-Rey Division (Northern-Cameroon)
- The volunteering of the free water supply in two medium-size cities in Chad and Cameroon : Sarh and Ngaoundéré
- Dynamics of the types of land use in the Northern periphery of the Mbam and Djérem National Park (Adamaoua-Cameroon)
- Analyse diachronique de l’occupation du sol entre 2007 et 2017 pour la restauration du paysage de la Forêt d’Enseignement et de Recherche de l’ENEF de Mbalmayo
Urban pressure, agriculture, cattle rearing and spatial dynamics of marginal forest formations: case of the upper Bini watershed (Adamaoua region in Cameroon)
ANABA BANIMB Robert Christian (1), AOUDOU DOUA Sylvain (2), NDJEUTO TCHOULI Prosper Innocent. (2), TCHOTSOUA Michel (1)
1) Laboratoire de Géomatique (LG), Département de Géographie, FALSH, Université de Ngaoundéré, Cameroun
2) Département de climatologie, pédologie et d’hydrologie, Institut Supérieur du Sahel, Université de Maroua, Cameroun
Abstract. The authors of this article present the results of the quantification of the spatial evolution of forest formations (clear forest, forest-gallery) and the factors of this evolution in the high watershed of Bini. Located on the Ngaoundéré plateau, which rises to an altitude of 1100 m on average, this watershed covers an area of 281,512 ha. The supervised classification of the 1999 and 2014 Landsat image portions covering this watershed was done with the QGIS Semi Automatic classification plugin module. After validation, the different classes obtained were converted into « shapefiles >> and then exported into the GIS module of the same software. It is here that the merger and the reallocation of the entities were made according to the realities on the ground. Finally, the analyzes reveal that, overall, forest formations have experienced a regression of 12992 ha in 15 years in this watershed. They also reveal that in difficult-to-reach areas, gallery forests in particular have grown by about 551 ha in this same period of time. The increase of the population and its needs in energy and nutrition, the exponential urbanization of Ngaoundéré, the asphalting of the Ngaoundéré-Touboro-Moundou road, agriculture and livestock are the main factors of this dynamic.
Keywords : Adamawa, Forest-savanna mosaic, Geographic Information System, QGIS, Remote Sensing, watershed.
Analysis of the modes of access and control of the natural resources of the Chadian part of Lake Chad by the rural communities
ADOUM FORTEYE Amadou (1), KIARI FOUGOU Hadiza (2), TOB-RO N’Dilbé (3)
1) Géographe, Doctorant, Assistant, Université Adam Barka d’Abéché, Tchad
2) Géographe, Maitre-Assistant CAMES, Enseignant-Chercheur à l’Institut Supérieur en Environnement et Ecologie (IS2E), Université de Diffa, Niger
3) Géographe, Maitre-Assistant CAMES, Enseignant-Chercheur au Département de Géographie, Université Adam Barka d’Abéché, Tchad
Abstract. . This paper analyzes the modes of access and control of natural resources and their consequences on the cohabitation between communities in the Lake Province in Chad. The results of the study is a product of literature review, combined with observations / field surveys and interviews with various actors in the land sector. The surveys involved samples from three cateories of socioprofessional stakholders (farmers, stockbreeders and fishermen), each composed of 30 people. From these investigations, it appears that most of the 300 islands, which account for the Chadian part of Lake Chad, are controlled by the communauties from BoudoumaThis situation of quasi-monopoly of land has led to conflicts. Between 2015 and 2018, the Lake province recorded 25 inter-community conflicts related to access to land and other natural resources (fish, grazing). These conflicts lets to the loss of life (38 dead), many injuries, loss of livestock and significant property damage, estimated at more than 50 million CFA francs. To improve the situation, with a view to peaceful coexistence, guaranteeing the harmonious development of farming, fishing and herding activities, requires a revision of the mode of organization and administration of access to land and / or resources of these communities.
Keywords : Land monopoly, access to land/natural resources, inter-community conflicts, Boudouma, non-indigenous communities, Lake Chad.
Extraction and marketing of gold of the Mayo-Rey Division (Northern-Cameroon)
TCHINDA MANFO Achille Janvier(1), PETNGA NYAMEN Simon Pierre(2)
1) Doctorant, Département de Géographie, Université Ngaoundéré, Cameroun
2) Docteur en Géographie de l’Université de Ngaoundéré, Cameroun
Abstract. As far as mining activities are concerned in Cameroon and particularly in Mayo-Rey, gold diggers, have either long been neglected or ignored by peasants. Since 2009, it is part of the key activities of the rural area and has undergone significant mutations on its marketing part. Since this gold panning boom, the number of gold quarries went up to 70, while that of gold diggers went up to 18 000 and that of gold collectors went up to 312 all from zero. In order to succeed in our finding, we used a hypothetical-deductive method, based on the analysis of documentaries. We also investigated through standard questionnaires. We definitely realized that business obeys a very complex process dominated by illegal collectors who do trafficking to the detriment of the mining brigade of Rey-Bouba in charge of legal business. The State should legalize this activity and survey the gold quarries through the permanent presence of the support personnel for the CAPAM, promotion of artisanal mining.
Keywords : Gold extraction, Gold collectors, carat, Mayo-Rey.
The volunteering of the free water supply in two medium-size cities in Chad and Cameroon : Sarh and Ngaoundéré
BÉTINBAYE Yamingué (1) & TCHOTSOUA Michel (2)
1) Docteur en géographie de l’Université de Ngaoundéré, Cameroun
2) Professeur Titulaire, Université de Ngaoundéré, Cameroun
Abstract. Water raises multifaceted issues, both social, economic and security, in contemporary societies. In urban areas of sub-Saharan African countries, in this case those of Central Africa, this common resource is one of the major challenges of urban governance. In Sarh and Ngaoundéré, two medium-sized cities located respectively in Chad and Cameroon, the urban drinking water service is mainly subject to public and private management modes with state-led leadership through public authorities on the one hand, and private actors acting with the public authorities on the other. Nevertheless, this model of urban governance of the public service of drinking water does not contribute to an effective service of the whole urban society. So, it is important to examine the local management drinking water in Sarh and Ngaoundéré in order to contribute to urban planning in these medium -sized African cities, based on innovative solutions brought by community actors. The methodology is focused on a hypothetico-deductive approach. It combines qualitative and quantitative approaches, with participant observations, informal and semi-structured interviews, documentary research, GPS field surveys and fieldwork as tools. The analysis of the situation between 1997 and 2019 shows that volunteering for the free supply of water, carried by patrons and wealthy, is part of proximity management approach. Moreover, it is an important factor for the generalization of the access to water.
Keywords : Urban service, water, city, urban society, Sarh, Ngaoundéré.
Dynamics of the types of land use in the Northern periphery of the Mbam and Djérem National Park (Adamaoua-Cameroon)
MVU NJOYA Marie(1), DOURWE NDIKWE Maurice(2), TSALEFAC Maurice(3)
1) Doctorante, laboratoire de Climatologie et de Recherche Environnementale, Université de Dschang, département de Géographie
2) Doctorant, laboratoire de géomatique de l’Université de Ngaoundéré, département de Géographie
3) Professeur des Universités, laboratoire de Climatologie et de Recherche Environnementale, Université de Dschang, chef de département de Géographie
Abstract. The landscape of the northern periphery of Mbam and Djerem National Park is under pressure from a rapid population growth in search of well-being. To assess the effects of anthropogenic actions on the occupation of this space, a diachronic analysis of the landscape over a period of sixteen years (2000-2016) was conducted using satellite images Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS, with a medium spatial resolution of 30 m. Thus, the small-wave infrared and infrared colour compositions associated with field surveys, calculation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and classification supervised by maximum likelihood have led to highlight eight land cover classes and to better follow the vegetation. In addition, observations and field surveys were conducted to show the consequences of degrading activities of farmers on the vegetation cover of the northern periphery park. In addition, the factors of evolution of these types of land use were highlighted thanks to the documentary review, the observations and some field surveys carried out between March and May 2016. Results show that from 2000 to 2016, the different types of land cover have undergone a gradual evolution of grassland savannahs, shrub savannahs, clear forest, fields and buildings, and on the other hand, a regressive evolution of wooded savannahs, gallery forests and water body. From the various observed regressions, the most important one is that of the wooded savannahs whose area decreased sharply by 8.48% between 2000 and 2016. In the various progressions examined, however, shrub savannahs are the ones that increased the most in area (7.28%). In total, the results show that the hypothesis emitted at the beginning of this study is partially verified. While the classes of clear forest, shrub and grass savannah grow in size, others decline, in particular, gallery forests and savannah, in favor of cultivated plots and constructions.
Keywords : Remote sensing, dynamic, Land cover, periphery, national park.
Analyse diachronique de l’occupation du sol entre 2007 et 2017 pour la restauration du paysage de la Forêt d’Enseignement et de Recherche de l’ENEF de Mbalmayo
BIKIE MINDANG Danièle Roseline(1)
1) Formateur, Ecole Nationale des Eaux et Forêts de Mbalmayo Cameroun
Abstract. The National Forestry School of Mbalmayo has a Teaching and Research Forest which is continuously being exposed to anthropic pressure which causes its degradation. However, no data are available on the land use or the rate of degradation of the forest. The aim of this study is to map the land use cover and to quantify its evolution from 2007 to 2017, and also to propose a plan of restoration. Thus, several data (Landsat high resolution images and data from Google Earth Pro) were acquired and processed. Which results have been validated by field surveys. Subsequently, land use maps has been elaborated using ArcGIS software and a restoration plan has been proposed. Results show that the land use is undergoing changes. The landscape of 2007 consists of 58.59% forest has been disturbed in favor of degraded forest (63.37%) and buildings (8.12%) in 2017. The proposed landscape restoration plan includes plots of reforestation with plant species (Chinese bamboo, rattan cane), forestry species but also agroforestry.
Keywords : Geomatics, Remote sensing, Land use, Mbalmayo, Landscape restoration.