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RIGAGER Numéro 6 – Introduction

Volume 06 of IJGPRM gathers together 08 scientific articles, 01 PhD thesis summary and 01 professional master's thesis summary, focused on Geomatics, natural resources and the development of the intertropical world in both rural and urban areas. Geomatics taught and practiced must be able to address the vital problems of our society by avoiding the silos and prejudices that make it so difficult to transform the enormous expertise that this science and technology offers in the field of the environment, spatial planning and digital cartography, in terms of spatial planning and the development of the intertropical world.

This part of the African continent has recorded its strongest economic growth in twenty years. The latter is mainly due to strong global demand for commodities and increased investment in these sectors. The exploitation and trade of raw materials is the main source of foreign exchange and tax revenue for many countries in the intertropical zone.

Most recent studies show that the exploitation of mineral resources tends to degrade the environment, the economic fabric, the social cohesion and the political institutions of producing countries. Paradoxically, the exploitation of the riches of the soil and subsoil is therefore associated with the misery of local populations and poor governance, as exposed by Terry Lynn Karl in his book The Paradox of Plenty. Some exceptions to the rule, however, leave hope that it is possible to ward off this curse, provided that a series of particular conditions are met.

These observations refer to now classic debates around the thesis of the curse of natural resources and enclave effects, which are renewed by the introduction of "new" regulations, most of which date back to the period the growth of prices in the early 2000s or the 2008 crisis.

These have been set up at various levels to regulate the exploitation of natural resources and more particularly in the mining sector.

It is therefore a question of asking otherwise the question of the curse of management and exploitation of natural resources. Countries that derive a high income from the exploitation of raw materials often see the majority of their population sinking into poverty and precariousness.

With regard to the risk of civil war, various studies have concluded that tensions over capture and distribution of rent increase political instability and the risk of armed conflict. Paul Collier and Anke Hoeffler (2000) assert on the basis of econometric analyzes that countries whose prosperity is based on the exploitation of raw materials present an increased risk of civil war, especially when these activities generate at least one third of the national income gross.

As for the political and institutional aspects, authors such as Nathan Jansen and Leonard Wantchekon (2008) believe that there is a correlation between the abundance of natural resources and the autocratic regimes in Africa8. The activities of the extractive industry and the consumption of hydrocarbons have a decisive impact on the environment.

The authors of the contributions to volume 06 of RIGAGER wonder in turn about the questions of development and exploitation of resources both in urban and in rural areas.

Thus, Rama NDAO considers as an instrument of planning and management of urbanization in Senegal, the program of promotion of Zones of Joint Development in which it is necessary to integrate Geographic Information Systems. Tchuembou Talom Boris and Etouna Joachim have used these tools of geomatics to analyze the problem of illegal parking of cars in downtown Yaoundé. Ndjeuto Chouli Prosper Innocent et al., Provide technical assistance with the tools of geomatics to the realization of the municipal plan of Development of the Municipality of Tignère whose one of the major objectives was the constitution of a database with reference Space. Betinbaye Yamingué et al. analyze urban land, which, through its appropriation and especially its valuation, poses problems of urban management in Doba, southern Chad. Adou Diané Lucien presents the results of the assessment of the impact of the standard of living of the populations on the strategies of fight against Malaria in Daloa. Nisso Youribele evaluate the participatory approach to the management of Bouba Ndjidda National Park. Bohoussou N’Guessan et al. assess the current contribution of the artificial lake to the resurgence of floods in the city of Man in Ivory Coast. al., apportent leur assistance technique avec les outils de la géomatique à la réalisation du plan communal de Développement de la Commune de Tignère dont l’un des objectifs majeurs était la constitution d’une une base de données à référence spatiale. Bétinbaye Yamingué et al. analysent le foncier urbain, qui, par son appropriation et surtout sa valorisation, pose des problèmes de gestion urbaine à Doba, au sud du Tchad. Adou Diané Lucienprésente les résultats de l’évaluation de l’impact du niveau de vie des populations sur les stratégies de lutte contre le paludisme à Daloa. Nisso Youribele évaluent l’approche participative de la gestion du Parc National de Bouba Ndjidda. Bohoussou N’Guessan et al. évaluent la contribution actuelle du  lac artificiel à la recrudescence des inondations dans ville de Man en Côte d’Ivoire.

These contributions, in addition to the technical developments, assess the impacts and the implementation of national or international regulation measures in the management of land resources, natural and human. They are conducted using methods for valuing the value of natural resources, tax analysis, rent-sharing for an efficient and profitable management of the resource in the broad sense of the term, whether it is land tenure or natural.

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